Appendix A

Table 1: Different "soil"- "underclays" in the Joggins Division 4 coals:
Source: Logan, 1843-1845; republished in 1908.

  Coal
 Group
      Sandstones and
         Argillaceous
          Sandstones
       (Understones)
      Arenaceous
          Shales
     (Underclays)
           Argillo-
        arenaceous
            Shales
       (Underclays)
     Argillaceous
    (Gray) Shales
    (Underclays)
    Carbonaceous
     Shales below
    Coals or above
       Underclays
    1       1 (Understone)
     w/ Stigmaria ficoides
           1
   w/ Stigm. ficoides
           1
   w/ Stigmaria ficoides
           *                     *        
    2               *            1
   w/ Stigm. ficoides
           1
   w/ Stigmaria ficoides
           *    1-3 (?) Inferred
  from Dawson, 1868
   No Stigmaria
    3               *            *            1
   w/ Stigmaria ficoides
           *            *
    4               *            *            1
 w/ Stigmaria ficoides
            1
     No Stigmaria
           3
     No Stigmaria
    5               *            1
   w/ Stigmaria leaves
           4
   3 w/ Stigm. ficoides
    1 w/ Stigm. leaves
           *            *
    6       1 (Underclay)
   w/ branches and leaves
   of  Stigmaria ficoides
           *            1
    w/ Stigmaria
           *            *
    7              *            *            *           1
   w/ Stigmaria
          3
   No Stigmaria
    8         1 (Understone)
       w/ Stigmaria and
       upright Calamites
           1
    w/ Stigmaria
            1
     w/ Stigmaria
          3
 1 w/  No Stigmaria
 1 w/ Stigmaria
 1 w/ Stigm. ficoides
          1
    No Stigmaria
    9       1 (Underclay)
  (Rough  gray sandstone)
         w/ Stigmaria
           *            1
     w/ Stigmaria
          1
  w/ Stigm. ficoides
           *
   10               *            *            1
   w/ Stigm. ficoides
           *                   1
   No Stigmaria
   11               *            *             *          1
 w/ Stigm. ficoides
          1
   No Stigmaria
   12        1 (Understone)
          w/ Stigmaria
           *             *          1
  w/ Stigm. ficoides
          1
     No Stigmaria
 Totals             5:
   3 w/ Stigmaria
   1 w/ Stigmaria ficoides 
   1 w/ branches and leaves
   of  Stigmaria ficoides
          4:
 1 w/ Stigmaria
 1 w/ Stigm. ficoides
 1 w/ Stigm. leaves
         12:
 2 w/ Stigmaria
 9 w/ Stigm. ficoides
 1 w/ Stigm. leaves
         8:
 2 w/ Stigmaria
 4 w/ Stigm. ficoides
 2 w/ No  Stigmaria
     11-13:
 No Stigmaria in any
  of these beds


Table 2: Different "soil"--"underclays" in the Joggins Division 4 coals:
Source: Dawson; 1853-4, Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lon. V. 10, pp. 3-6; and Dawson, 1855,  Acadian Geology, pp. 129-135.
See also Dawson, 1868,  Acadian Geology, pp. 162-167.

 Coal
 Group
 Bituminous
  Limestone
   Sandstone
       (Gray)
 Argillaceous
  Sandstones
 Arenaceous
 "Underclay"
       Shales   Underclay        Various
          Other
     1        *    1 w/ rootlets
   of Stigmaria
       *    1 w/ Stools
  of  Stigm. and
  an erect stump
          *  1  with  
   rootlets
 1  Sandstone and 
     Shale, irreg.
     bedded, One bed
     w/ Stigm. rootlets
     2  1 w/ rootlets
 of  Stigmaria
       *  1: w/ Stigmaria
  roots
       *           *   1 w/ rootlets
  
of Stigm., 
 1 w/ indistinct
   rootlets
           *
     3        *        *        *        *           *  1: w/  
  rootlets
           *
     4        *        *        *  1: w/ Stigm.
  rootlets
          *        *            *
     5        *   2: each w/
  Stigm. rootlets
       *        *           *  2: each w/
   Stigm.
   rootlets
           *
     6        *  1: w/ Rootlets        *        *           *  1 w/ rootlets  
  of  Stigm.,  
 1 w/ Roots
 and rootlets
 
of Stigm. --
 forming the  
 roof of a coal.
           *
     7        *  1: Sandstone
 (w/clay parting);
  w/ Stigm. 
  rootlets

 and prostrate
 Sigillaria above
 the clay parting
 1: w/ Stools
 and rootlets
of
 Stigmaria
       *             3: 
1
"Shale or
  underclay"
w/ No 
 roots or  rootlets;
 1 w/ Roots and
 rootlets
of erect 
 stumps; and 1 w/
 leaves;* erect tree,
 and Stigm. rootlets.
 1: w/ rootlets
  of Stigm.
      and
  carbonized
    plants
              3:
"Underclay and
   shale with bands of
   sandstone," 
w/ 
   rootlets 
( p.172).
 
Sandstone and Clay, 
  w/ Stigm. stools;  
1 (alternating
 Sandstones and shales)
 w/ Stigm. stools
     8        *        *        *        *  1: w/ leaves* in
 upper part, erect
 stumps in lower
 part. No roots or
 rootlets
 1: w/ Rootlets  1: 'Underclay, black,
 bituminous, resting
 on  hard arenaceous
 understone," w/ Stools 
 
 and rootlets
 of  Stigm.
     9        *        *        *        *           *  1:  w/
 Rootlets
 and coaly
 matter
 1: "Underclay and
 shale,"
w/ Stigmaria,
 small erect stems or
 roots,
and coaly layers
    10        *  3: w/ Stigmaria
 rootlets
       *        *           *        *            *
    11        *        *        *        *  1 w/ Stigm. roots and an erect stump  1: w/ Roots
 and rootlets

 of Stigmaria
           *
    12        *        *        *  1: "Understone"
 
 w/ rootlets of
  Stigmaria
 2: w/ Sigillaria,
 leaves,* and
 Stigm. rootlets
 1: No roots
 or rootlets
           *


Table 2.1  Totals from Table 2.

 Coal
 Group
 Bituminous
  Limestone
  Sandstone
     (Gray)
 Argillaceous
  Sandstones
 Arenaceous
 "Underclay"
     Shales   Underclay       Various
        Other
Totals          1          8              2           3         7         13                6
 Break-
 down 
   of
 Totals
   w/ Rootlets
 of  Stigmaria
  Rootlet or
   Stigmaria
    rootlets 
   
in  each
 1 w/ Stigm.    
    roots
 1 w/ Stigm.
    stools and
    rootlets
 1 w/ stools of 
       Stigm.

  2: w/ Stigm.
     rootlets
1 w/ Roots and
    rootlets
of
    erect stumps
 3 w/ leaves* and 
    Stigm rootlets
 1 w/ Stigm. roots
 2 w/ No roots or 
    rootlets (one 
    of  which had
    leaves)*
 9 w/ Rootlets
   (or  Rootlets
    of Stigmaria)
 1 w/ Indistinct
    rootlets 

 2
w/ Roots and
     rootlets
of
     Stigmaria
 1 w/ No roots
      or  rootlets
  2 w/ Rootlets
  2 w/ Stigm.
      stools

  1 w/ Stigmaria
       (roots)
  1 w/ Stigmaria
     stools and 
      rootlets

Notes:  Not all of the above beds qualify as "underclays", for many of them do not underlie a seam of coal or 
carbonaceous material, but rather are surrounded by shale or sandstone.  Also, according to Logan (who also 
measured this section), few if any, are composed of clay.

Of the 24 coals, coaly shales, and carbonaceous shales that Dawson records in this section, only 19 have anything 
that remotely resembles a "soil/underclay" beneath them.  Only one of these is listed in the table above since it was 
the only one Dawson said was an ancient soil; however, he said it contained  Poacite (leaves) rather than Stigmaria. 
In this regard, Logan also lists at least two coals in this section that do not have "underclays" (with roots and/or 
rootlets) beneath them.  Duff and Walton 1 also list three coals in the Joggins Formation that do not have an underclay
(seat-earth) beneath them.

The bituminous limestone of coal group 2 is not mentioned by Logan.  It also is not mentioned by Dawson in his (1868)
sequel of Acadian Geology; however, it is in the 1855 edition and in his 1853 paper.  It not only has rootlets of Stigmaria,
but also shells of Modiola, Cypris (later called Cythere, and today known as Ostracodes).  We are also told that an erect 
tree is  "rooted" in it. 

Comments:
From the table above there are 26 beds that contain only rootlets.  In addition, there are 3 "underclays" with no roots 
at all, and 5 that have roots or stools (i.e. large roots) but no (mention of) rootlets.  If we include the 4 (other) beds beneath
coals that were not claimed (by Dawson) to be underclays, then we have a total of 38 out of 44 beds with either no roots at 
all, or which contain only roots or rootlets.  Only 5 beds are listed that contain both roots and rootlets; none are said to contain
"roots with rootlets", or "roots with attached rootlets".  One of the five is said to have roots and rootlets of erect stumps, so it
is probable that such rootlets were attached; however, this shale is immediately above a coal rather than below one.  
Therefore, out of 44 possible soils, only 3 contain both roots and rootlets that are also situated beneath a coal.  When we
take into account Dawson's eagerness to prove that the coals were formed in place, it is fairly safe to say that if any of 
these "soils" contained roots with attached rootlets, he would have eagerly said so.  However, since he didn't, then to say
that such beds represent in situ growth of multiple "forests" is highly questionable.

References:
1. Duff, P. McL. D., and Walton, E. K., 1973, "Carboniferous Sediments at Joggins, Nova Scotia," In: Septieme Congres 
    International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere; Compte Rendu; 7; 2, pp. 355-379, See p. 367, Fig. 2. 
    



Table 3. Different Types of Underclay at Joggins: according to Logan and Dawson; 

Dawson's contributions are  italicized and in Red.

 Coal
 Group
 Bituminous
 Limestone
 (Ancient
 soil bed) ??
 Sandstones and
 Argillaceous
  Sandstones
 (Understones)
      Arenaceous
          Shales
     (Underclays)
        Argillo-
     arenaceous
         Shales
    (Underclays)
 Argillaceous
 (Gray) Shales
 (Underclays)
 Carbonaceous
  Shales (below
 Coals or above
   Underclays)
    1         *   1 (Understone)
     w/ Stigmaria 
   ficoides rootlets
 1:  w/ Stigm. ficoides
     Sandstone, Gray,
  rootlets of Stigmaria
  1:  w/ Stigm.   
 ficoides rootlets
         *                   *
    2  1: Rootlets of
  Stigmaria;
  erect tree also
  rooted in this
  limestone.
           *             1
  w/ Stigmaria ficoides
         1
  w/ Stigm. ficoides
   Underclay w/
    Rootlets of
     Stigmaria
         *    1-3 (?) Inferred
 from Dawson, 1868
 No Stigmaria
 Clay, Clay, Shale
 (each  between
 layers of coal)
    3         *            *            *          1
   w/ Stigm. ficoides
   Underclay w/
 
      Rootlets
         *           *
    4         *            *            *          1
 w/ Stigm. ficoides
  1:  No Stigmaria
  Underclay hard
 and arenaceous,
 Stigm. rootlets.
 3:  No Stigmaria
  Shale, bituminous
 and pyritous, Coaly
 layers, Poacites,
   Ulodendron.
    5         *            *            1
 w/ Stigmaria leaves
 3 w/ Stigm. ficoides
 1 w/ Stigm. leaves
         *           *
    6         *   1 (Underclay) w/
 branches and leaves  of  Stigmaria ficoides
           *          1
    w/ Stigmaria
         *           *
    7         *            *            *           *           1
    w/ Stigmaria
          3
    No Stigmaria
    8         *   1 (Understone)
   w/ Stigmaria and
  upright Calamites
           1
    w/ Stigmaria
          1
    w/ Stigmaria
 1 w/  No Stigm.
 1 w/ Stigmaria
 1 w/ Stigm. fic.
          1
 No Stigmaria
    9         *  1 (Underclay)
   (Rough  gray
  sandstone) w/ Stigm.
           *           1
 w/ Stigmaria
         1
 w/ Stigm. ficoides
          *
   10         *            *            *           1
   w/ Stigm. ficoides
  1 (Shale-like
  Underclay)
  No Stigmaria
          1
    No Stigmaria
   11         *            *            *           *          1
 w/ Stigm. ficoides
          1
   No Stigmaria
   12         *    1 (Understone)
     w/ Stigmaria
           *           *          1
 w/ Stigm. ficoides
          1
   No Stigmaria
 Totals        1
  Rootlets of
   Stigmaria
          5
 3 w/ Stigmaria
 1 w/ Stigmaria fic.
 1 w/ branches and
   leaves of  Stigm.
   ficoides
           4
 1 w/ Stigmaria
 2 w/ Stigm. ficoides
 1 w/ Stigm. leaves
         12
  2 w/ Stigmaria
  9 w/ Stigm. ficoides
  1 w/ Stigm. leaves
           9
 2 w/ Stigmaria
 5 w/ Stigm. fic.
 3 w/ No Stigm.
         13-15
 No Stigmaria in 
  any of these beds

After Logan, 1843 (pub. 1845); Division 4 Coals, Coal Groups 1-12;  And Dawson, 1853, Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lon., V. 10, 
pp. 3-6; Dawson, 1855,  Acadian Geology, pp. 129-135 (Rom. Num. XXVII--XIX),  these contributions are in red 
italics.
  See also: Dawson, 1868, Acadian Geology,  pp. 162-167.
 
                                           
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