Rupke, N.A., “A Study of Cataclysmic Sedimentation,” Creation Research Soc. Quarterly., Vol. 3, 1966, p. 21.
- ibid. ref. 1, p. 23. See also: Bolsche, W., 1918, Im Steinkohlenwald, Stuttgart, Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung, 16 th impr. P. 34; This is discussed in more detail in Part Two of this paper.
- ibid. ref. 1, p. 23; See also: Nelson, B.C., (1931), The Deluge Story in Stone, Minneapolis, Augsburg, 1962, 16th impr. p. 111; and Taylor, W. E., 1857, Voices from the Rocks..., p.?; Various other upright trees from 25-50 feet long have been documented as well; this will be discussed in greater detail in a subsequent publication.
Dawson, John W., 1868, “Acadian Geology,” 2nd ed. Macmillan & Co., London, pp. 151-178.
For example, Dawson states:
We thus see a series of beds amounting to more than 14,000 feet in vertical thickness, and
extending from the marine limestones of the Lower Carboniferous series to the top of the Coal
formation. In the cliff and on the beach, more than seventy seams of coal may be seen, with their
roof shales and underclays, and erect plants appear at as many distinct levels..."
Acadian Geology, 1868, p. 151. Emphasis Added
- Dawson, 1854, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 10, p.26. Regarding the Drifted Trunk deposits see pp. 4-27.
- Dawson vaguely described at least nine different deposits at Joggins that contain large drifted trees; however, the actual number is almost certainly larger. For example, on p. 178 of Acadian Geology (1868), we are told that there are 1224 feet of "Gray sandstone with gray and red shale" with "Many drifted trunks of Sigillaria and Calamites, and an erect Sigillaria in the lowest bed of sandstone." No other details are given. The other drift deposits are described in similar fashion with few details. No drawings (or pictures) of these deposits were provided.
- Dawson, John W., 1868, “Acadian Geology,” 2nd ed. Macmillan & Co., London, p. 188; Lyell, Sir Charles, 1881, Life of Sir Charles Lyell, Vol. II, p. 65; Bell, W.A., "Joggins Carboniferous Section of Nova Scotia," Canada Geol. Survey Summary Report; 1912, p. 328.
- Dawson, John W., 1868, “Acadian Geology,” 2nd ed. Macmillan & Co., London, p. 151-203; See also: Helder, Margaret, Ph.D., “At Joggins: Look What The Sea Uncovered,” Creation Science Dialogue, Vol. 19, No.3, 10/92; pp. 4-5. Dunbar, Carl O., Geology, 2nd Ed., 1960, Wiley & Sons, pp. 227-228. Coffin, Harold, Origin by Design, 1983, Review and Herald Publishing Assn., Hagerstown, MD 21740, pp. 117-133
. See also Appendix A.
- Another place where large tree stumps are preserved without their roots is Axel Heiberg Island in Northern Canada.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 151-202.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 406, 408-410. See text (refs. 80 and 109) for actual quotes.
- Nöggerath, Jakob: Ueber aufrecht im Gebirgsgestein eingeschlossene fossile Baumstämme und andere Vegetabilien. Bonn: Weber, 1819. 3 Bl., 65 S. See also: Scheven, Joachim, 1986, Karbon -studien: Neues Licht auf das Alter der Erde; Hänssler Verlag, 94 pp.
- Rupke, N.A., Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 3, 1966, p. 25.
- Schrock, Robert R., 1948, Sequence in Layered Rocks; McGraw Hill, p. 293.
- Schuchert, Charles, 1915, "A Textbook of Geology", Pt. II, p. 714.
- Ferguson, Laing, 1988, The Fossil Cliffs of Joggins, Publ. by the Nova Scotia Museum, pp. 9-11, 27
- ibid. ref. 14, p. 296. This drawing first appeared in the 1868 Edition of Acadian Geology, by Dawson, Sir William J., p. 198. An earlier version appeared on p. 172 of the 1855 Edition.
- Berthault, Guy: http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/magazines/tj/docs/v11n1_sedexp_reply.asp
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 26; Acadian Geology, 1855, p. 172, and 1868, p. 198.
- The reason this coal does not appear laminated is because the drawing in the text is from microfiche. The laminations do not appear in Shrock's reproduction either--perhaps for the same reason; however, they are present in both the 1855, and 1868 editions of Acadian Geology.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 11; see ref. 33 (in text) for actual quote.
- Dawson, John W., 1855, Acadian Geology, p. 159; See also ref. 4 p. 188.
- Lyell, Sir Charles, "Life of Sir Charles Lyell," Vol. II, 1881, p. 65. See also: Bell, W.A., 1912, “Joggins Carboniferous Section of Nova Scotia”, Canada Geol. Survey, Sum. Report; p. 328.
- Page 164 of Acadian Geology (1868 Ed.) says four inches, while page 199 says one inch. An earlier publication (ref. 5, p. 4) also indicates one inch. Furthermore, we are told on page 164 that there is an underclay beneath this coal, while on page 199 we are told there is not. Logan refers to the underclay as a "Gray argillo-arenaceous shale, with stigmariae." Logan's measurements indicate that this seam was four inches thick. In either case the evidence suggests that this tree probably crossed this seam that was full of Poacites (ref. 5 p.4) -- long striated leaves now referred to as Cordaites.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 26. See also note on ref. 26 below.
According to a Nova Scotia Dept. of Mines Website: See ref. 162 for URL.
Note: With regard to this 13 m (40 foot) tree: I contacted Mr Calder to ask if he saw it himself, or, if not to provide a reference. Mr. Calder said that he did not have first-hand knowledge but that he would ask the person who told him and get back to me. So far he has not done so; however, some light was added on this in a recent discussion that I had online with Bill Birkeland. Here is a Link to this part of our discussion. The entire discussion is available via a Link at the end of Part Two: See Bill Birkeland & Co.
"... (Fallen logs up to 13 m long have been found in former coal mines in the area)."
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 8.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 164-165.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 165.
- Dawson, John W., Acadian Geology, 1855, p. 173.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 21; This drawing also appears in Lyell and Dawson, 1853, Vol. 9, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., p. 62; Dawson, J. W., Acadian Geology, 1855 and 1868 Eds., and Calder, J. H. and Scott A. C., Geology Today, Nov.-Dec. 1994, p. 214.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 157-178. See also ref. 5 pp. 3-10, and Logan, Sir William E., appendix to the first Report of Progress of the Geological Survey (of Canada), 1843 (published in 1845), pp. 92-156. Logan's report is reprinted in the Proc. and Trans. of the Nova Scotia Inst. of Science, 1908, Vol. XI, pp. 419-499. See also Appendix A.
- ibid. ref. 5, p.11
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 168.
- Lyell, Sir Charles, and Dawson, Sir John W., 1853, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 9, p. 58-62.
- ibid. ref. 1, pp. 24-25.
- Fauth, Ph. 1913, Hörbigers Glacial-Kosmoganie. Eine Neue Entwickelungs-geschichte des Weltalls und des Sonnensystems, Kaiserslautern, Kayser, p. 445.
- The "river / flood plain" scenario for the Joggins deposits is quite popular. See also ref. 16, pp. 8, 11, 17, 42.
- ibid. ref. 16, p. 11.
- ibid. ref. 16, p. 27.
- Bell, W.A., “Joggins Carboniferous Section of Nova Scotia,” Canada Geol. Survey Summ. Rep; 1912, p. 331.
- Helder, Margaret, 1992, "At Joggins: Look What The Sea Uncovered," Creation Science Dialogue, Vol. 19, No. 3, p.5. Helder also provides the following reference: Gibling, M.R., 1987, "A Classic Carboniferous Section: Joggins, N.S. Geological Society America Centennial Field Guide, NE Section," 5(88): p. 411.
- Duff, P. McL. D., and Walton, E. K., 1973, "Carboniferous Sediments at Joggins, Nova Scotia", In: Septieme Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere; Compte Rendu; 7; 2, pp. 355-379, See pp. 370-372. Note: Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere = International Congress on Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology. See also ref. 66.
- Archer, W., Calder, John H., Gibling, Martin R., Naylor, Robert D., Reid, Donald R., and Wightman, Winton, G., 1995, "Invertebrate trace fossils and agglutinated foraminifera as indicators of marine influence within the classic Carboniferous section at Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada, Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 32, pp. 2028-2029.
- Calder, John H., "The impact of climate change, tectonism and hydrology on the formation of Carboniferous tropical intermontane mires: the Springhill coalfield, Cumberland Basin, Nova Scotia," Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1994, Vol. 106, p. 323.
- White, Judith C., Gibling, Martin R., Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D., "The Backpit seam, Sydney Mines Formation, Nova Scotia: A record of peat accumulation and drowning in a Westphalian coastal mire," Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1994, Vol. 106, p. 223.
- Acadian Geology, 1855, pp. 129-130. See also ibid. ref. 5, p. 3.
- ibid. ref. 5, pp. 28-29.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 179.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 29.
- Brown, Richard, 1849, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 6, p. 129.
- ibid ref. 54,
- Brown, Richard, 1847, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 4, p. 49.
- ibid. ref. 39.
- Personal correspondence with author.
- ibid. ref. 16, pp. 13-18.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 169-176 and 181-188; refer to Coal Groups 18-45 of the Division 4 Coals.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 188.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 30
- Lyell, Charles, 1871, The Student's Elements of Geology, p. 379.
See also: http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/gutenberg/etext03/geogy10.txt ;
Or go to: http://promo.net/cgi-promo/pg/t9.cgi and search for Charles Lyell.
- Brown, Richard, 1846, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., vol. ii, p. 395, Fig. 2; See also ibid. ref. 4, p. 406-B
See also Appendix A for a bed by bed analysis of Coal Groups 1-12 of the Joggins strata.
- ibid. ref. 42, p. 332.
- ibid. ref. 44, p. 370.
Note: A reference for Lyell's quote is provided in their paper.
- Calder, John H., http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/meb/ONE/98ofr5.htm
- Coffin, Harold, Origin by Design, 1983, Review and Herald Publishing Assn., Hagerstown, MD 21740, pp.120-121.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 186.
- Brown, Richard, 1849, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 5, pp. 358-360.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 183.
- Lyell, Sir Charles, 1845, Stigmaria in micaceous sandstone; Travels in North America, Canada, and Nova Scotia, with Geological Observations, p. 151, Fig. 20.
- ibid ref. 68, pp.120-121. See also : http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-316.htm
- Lyell, Sir Charles, 1845; Travels in North America, Canada, and Nova Scotia, with Geological Observations, pp. 151-153. This illustration also appears in "The Natural History of Coal," by Arber, E. A. Newell, 1911, Cambridge Univ. Press, p. 103. It also appears in ref. 152, (p. 265) of this paper. See also Lyell, Sir Charles, 1871, The Students Elements of Geology, Lon., pp. 392-393.
- Geikie, Sir Archibald, 1903, Text Book of Geology, p. 655. Note: Geikie gives reference to a Memoir by M. Fayol from which this photo may have been taken. He also informs us that this tree is from the Nova Scotia coal-fields.
- ibid. ref. 74.
- Brown, Richard, 1846, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 2, p. 394-396.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 406-B. Note: This page is between pp. 406 and 407.
- Although Dawson does tell us that Figs 1, 2, and 3 "are from papers by Mr. Brown quoted in the text," he does not say which ones. In other words, the inquisitive reader is forced to look up all of Mr. Browns papers (listed in Chapter 1) in order to find any other details about this tree. This is also the case for the tree in fig. 9 (above ref. 78) in Part 1 (of text) -- which Dawson also had re-drawn and is pictured on the same page.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 406.
- Dawson, John .W. Acadian Geology, 1855, p. 54; and 1868, p. 81.
- ibid. ref. 68.
- Dawson, J. W., 1866, "On the Conditions of the Deposition of Coal...of Nova Scotia," Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 22, pp. 127-128.
- ibid. ref. 5, p. 34.
- ibid. ref. 4. p. 183.
- Scott, A. C. and Falcon-Lang, H. J., 2000, "Upland ecology of some Late Carboniferous corditalean trees from Nova Scotia and England," Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 156, pp. 228-230.
- Austin, Steve, 1986, "Mount St. Helens and Catastrophism," ICR Impact Article 175.
- Morris, John D., The Young Earth, 1994, p. 103.
- ibid. ref. 86, p. 230.
- Dawson, John William, 1846, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 2, pp. 132-134.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 179-183.
- Lacefield, Jim, 2000, Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks, The Alabama Geological Society, p. 61.
- Calder, John H., Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources website, at: http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/meb/ONE/98ofr5.htm
- Dawson, John W., 1865, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., pp. 103-105.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 172.
- ibid. ref. 68, p. 120.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 185.
- ibid. ref. 94.
- Coffin, Harold G., "A Paleoecological Misinterpretation". Note that this is only a summary of Coffins article.
See also "The Spirorbis Problem" -- also by Coffin.
- ibid. ref. 86, pp. 225-234.
- Darwin, Charles. More Letters Of Charles Darwin -- Volume 2, LETTER 555. TO J.D. HOOKER; May 22, 1860.
- More Letters Of Charles Darwin -- Volume 2, Letters 552, 553, and 555 To J.D. Hooker;
May 1846, June 2nd, 1847, and May 22nd, 1860. This may also be found online at:
ftp://ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext01/2mlcd10.txt ; Or go to :
http://promo.net/cgi-promo/pg/t9.cgi and search for Charles Darwin.
See also: Binney, E. W., 1844, The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Phil. Mag., Vol. XXIV, p. 173. And: Binney, E. W., 1848, “On the Origin of Coal,” Mem. Literary and Philosophical. Soc. of Manchester; AKA : Mem. of the Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc.; Vol. VIII, pp. 148-193 ?
See also: Wieland, Carl, "Forests that grew on water," Creation, Vol. 18, No.1, Dec. 1995- Feb. 96, pp. 20-24.
- Kunze, Otto, 1884, Die vorweltliche Entwicklung der Erdkruste und der Pflanzen Phytogeogenesis.
- ibid. ref. 4. pp. 151-211.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 158-159; ibid. ref. 5, pp. 13-14.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 167
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 169
- ibid. ref. 44. p. 356.
- Price, George, 1923, The New Geology, pp. 462-3
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 408-9.
- ibid. ref. 68, pp. 132-133.
- ibid. ref. 54, p. 120. According to Brown, section 174 is 2 feet, 7 inches thick and composed of Argillaceous shale," and section 175 is 4 feet thick and composed of "Arenaceous shale" (with) "(Erect Trees)."
- ibid. ref. 54, p. 130.
- ibid ref. 4, p. 164
- Personal communication with author. The 1995 paper referred to is ref. 46; the 1998 paper is ref. 152. Faure, G. Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd edition, 1986, pp. 309-340.
- Skilliter, Deborah M., 1997, Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 29, p. 80
- Nevins, Stuart E., 1976, "The Origin of Coal." ICR Impact Article 41; Note: This article is available
online at: http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-041.htm
- A. D. Cohen, 1970, "An Allochthonous Peat Deposit from Southern Florida," Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 81, pp. 2477-2482.
- Rupke, N. A., Oct. 1969, "Sedimentary Evidence for the Allochthonous Origin of Stigmaria, Carboniferous, Nova Scotia," Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., Vol. 80, pp. 2109-2114. See also Coffin, Harold G., 1983, "Origin by Design", pp. 41-53 and 117-133.
- Ferguson, Laing, 1970, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., Vol. 81, pp. 2531-2534.
- Rupke, N. A., 1970, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., Vol. 81, pp. 2535-2538.
- Williamson, C. W., 1887, "A Monograph on the Morphology and Histology of Stigmaria ficoides," p.12., London Palaeontograhical Society.
- ibid. ref. 123, pp. 40-44.
- Lesquereux, Leo, 1880, "Description of the Coal Flora of the Carboniferous Formation in Pennsylvania and Throughout the United States," Vol. 1, pp. 510-513.
- ibid. ref. 44.
- ibid. ref. 68, pp. 125-127.
- ibid. ref. 88, pp. 100-103
- Austin, Steven A., 1986, "Mount St. Helens and Catastrophism," Impact Article 157, Published by the Institute for Creation Research. See also Dr. Austin's 1992 video presentation on Mount St. Helens.
- Coffin, H. G., 1968, "A Paleoecological Misinterpretation," Creation Res. Soc. Quart., Vol. 5, pp. 85-87; See also http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/abstracts/sum5_2.html , See also Barnes, R. D., 1963, Invertebrate Zoology, p. 205; and Thorson, Gunnar, 1957, Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 67, p. 480. See also ref. 4, pp. 151-207, (For Dawson's Comments on Spirorbis) esp. p. 181.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 181.
- ibid. ref. 4, pp. 205-206.
- It is almost certain that Sigillaria trees had hollow (or semi-hollow) trunks. This is because in virtually every case where they are found, they are either "flattened" (when prostrate) or filled with sediments (when upright). See also ref. 4 pp. 151-203. See also Nova Scotia Web site (ref. 167).
- ibid. ref. 101 and 102.
- ibid. ref. 103, 104.
- ibid. ref. 130
- Schultze, H. P., and J. Chorn, 1997, "The Permo-Carboniferous genus Sagenodus and the beginning of modern lungfish," Contributions to Zoology, Vol. 67 (1), pp. 9-70. For a summary of this article see: http://www.uba.uva.nl/ctz/vol67/nr1/art02/6701a02#Spirorbis.html.
- ibid 63. p. ???
- ibid. ref. 46, pp. 2027-2039.
- Wightman, W. G., Scott, D. B., Medioli, F. S., and Gibling, M. R., July, 1993, "Carboniferous marsh foraminifera from coal-bearing strata at the Sydney basin, Nova Scotia...", Geology, V.21, pp. 631- 634.
- Price, George M., 1923, The New Geology, pp. 400-401, 417.
- ibid. ref. 92, pp. 43-45.
- Dawson, Sir William J., 1868, “Acadian Geology,” 2nd ed. Macmillan & Co., London, pp. 165, 206.
- Moore, Raymond C., Lalicker, Cecil G., and Fischer, Alfred G., Invertebrate Fossils, 1952, MaGraw-Hill, p. 560.
- Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 1958, 3rd Edition, p. 897.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 175.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 162.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 164-5.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 209.
- ibid. ref. 4, p. 209.
- Copeland, M. J., 1957, “The Arthropod Fauna of the Upper Carboniferous Rocks of the Maritime Provinces,” Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 286, 110pp.
- Calder, John H., 1998, "The Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia," in Lyell: The Past is the Key to the Present, Blundell, D. J., & Scott, A. C., editors, Geol. Soc, Lon. Special Pub. 143, pp. 261-302.
- Tibbert, Neil E. and Scott, David B., "Ostracodes and Agglutinated Foraminifera as Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Change in an Early Carboniferous Brackish Bay, Atlantic Canada," 1999, PALAIOS v. 14, pp. 246-260; a summary of this paper is available at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/sepm/palaios/9906/tibert.html.
- ibid. ref. 153, p. 268.
- Tibert, N. E., 1996, "A Paleoecological Interpretation for the Ostracodes and Agglutinated Foraminifera from the Earliest Carboniferous Marginal Marine Horton Bluff Formation, Blue Beach Member, Nova Scotia, Canada." MSc thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax.
- ibid. ref. 144, p. 574.
- Skilliter, Deborah, at: http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/meb/ONE/98ofr5.htm
- Dawson, John W., 1866, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon., Vol. 22, p. 143.
- ibid. Ref. 158, p. 126.
- ibid. Ref. 158, p. 144.
- Condra, G. E., and Elias, M. K., 1944, "Carboniferous and Permian Ctenostomatous Bryzoa." Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 55, pp. 517-568, see p. 550.
- ibid. ref. 152, pp. 267-268.
- Archer, et al. 1995, Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, pp. A31-A32.
- ibid. ref. 94, pp. 103-105.
- Gessner, Abraham, 1836, Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova Scotia. 272 pp.
- Price, George, 1923, The New Geology
** = Emphasis Added
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